The Kitab al-Bulhan, or Book of Wonders, is an Arabic manuscript dating mainly from the late 14th century A.D. and probably bound together in Baghdad during. THE SUBJECT OF THIS article is an illustrated manuscript in the Bodleian Library. (Kitab al-bulhan, Bodl. Or. ).1 This codex is particularly dear to me. The Kitab al-Bulhan كتاب البلهان, or Book of Wonders, or Book of Surprises, is a mainly 14th The 'Book of Surprises' (Kitab al-bulhan)of the Bodleian Library ( PDF), The La Trobe Journal; Isfahani (al-), Abd al-Hasan (), Kitab Al-Bulhan .
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Kitab simpwaperlacal.cf Pages. Kitab simpwaperlacal.cf Mustafa Çakırlı. Uploaded by. Mustafa Çakırlı. Download with Google Download with Facebook. The Kitab al-Bulhan, or Book of Wonders, is an Arabic manuscript dating mainly from the late 14th century A.D. and probably bound together in. Each of the twelve signs of the zodiac in Abu Macshar's Kitab al-mawalid. (Book of . In the Kitab al-bulhan the corresponding illustration is very different.
Home to the headquarters of the United Nations , New York is an important center for international diplomacy. Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs — Brooklyn , Manhattan , The Bronx , Staten Island — were consolidated into a single city in ; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States.
As many as languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.
New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in on Lower Manhattan. New York served as the capital of the United States from until , it has been the country's largest city since The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.
In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in and receiving a record Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world.
Times Square , iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District , one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city.
Over colleges and universities are located in New York City , including Columbia University , New York University , Rockefeller University , which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. In , the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
During the Wisconsinan glaciation , 75, to 11, years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1, feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers.
In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans , including the Lenape , whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking , included Staten Island ; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in by Giovanni da Verrazzano , a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown.
The codex was bound during the reign of Jalayirid Sultan Ahmad at Baghdad , includes texts on astronomy , geomancy and a section of full-page illustrated plates dedicated to each discourse topic, e.
The original codex comprised a series of treatises, which came apart and when sections were reassembled and some lost, it became jumbled and incoherent.
In the late C. The Book of Felicity Complete digital copy at Bodleian Library Dragon A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have been depicted as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence; the earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes.
Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies. In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon.
They are said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit by J. Tolkien , the Harry Potter series by J. Martin ; the word "dragon" has come to be applied to the Chinese lung, which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain.
Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal companions. The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not mythological.
Dragon-like creatures appear in all cultures around the globe. Nonetheless, scholars dispute where the idea of a dragon originates from and a wide variety of theories have been proposed. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans, just like monkeys, have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats, birds of prey, he cites a study which found that 39 people in a hundred are afraid of snakes and notes that fear of snakes is prominent in children in areas where snakes are rare.
The earliest attested dragons all bear snakelike attributes. Jones therefore concludes that the reason why dragons appear in nearly all cultures is because of humans' innate fear of snakes and other animals that were major predators of humans' primate ancestors.
Dragons are said to reside in "dank caves, deep pools, wild mountain reaches, sea bottoms, haunted forests", all places which would have been fraught with danger for early human ancestors. In her book The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs and Myth in Greek and Roman Times , Adrienne Mayor argues that some stories of dragons may have been inspired by ancient discoveries of fossils belonging to dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals.
She argues that the dragon lore of northern India may have been inspired by "observations of oversized, extraordinary bones in the fossilbeds of the Siwalik Hills below the Himalayas " and that ancient Greek artistic depictions of the Monster of Troy may have been influenced by fossils of Samotherium , an extinct species of giraffe whose fossils are common in the Mediterranean region. In China , a region where fossils of large prehistoric animals are common, these remains are identified as "dragon bones" and are used in Chinese traditional medicine.
Mayor, however, is careful to point out that not all stories of dragons and giants are inspired by fossils and notes that Scandinavia has many stories of dragons and sea monsters, but has long "been considered barren of large fossils. These ancient peoples were unaware of the existence of dinosaurs or similar creatures in the distant past.
References to dragons of both benevolent and malevolent characters occur throughout ancient Mesopotamian literature. A dragon-like creature with the foreparts of a lion and the hind-legs and wings of a bird appears in Mesopotamian artwork from the Akkadian Period until the Neo-Babylonian Period ; the dragon is shown with its mouth open. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in ; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan , with million passengers in Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in , with Paris received 23 million visitors in , measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States , the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in , after Bangkok and London.
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